# DEVELOPMENT OF A TOPOLOGY OPTIMIZATION ALGORITHM WITH ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING CONSTRAINTS

## Palavras-chave:

Topology Optimization, Additive Manufacturing, Fused Deposition Modelling, Overhang Angle## Resumo

Topology Optimization (TO) is a systematic method with wide application to structural

optimization. TO combines optimization algorithms with finite element method, in order to provide an

optimal material distribution inside a design domain, aiming to attend a specified objective function and

to satisfy the constraints on the optimization problem. Additive Manufacturing (AM) is a generalized

term utilized to designate the manufacturing techniques, that employ the principle of fabrication by

adding material layer by layer to obtain the final geometry of a product. This principle is powerful for

manufacturing geometries of higher complexity when compared to traditional manufacturing

techniques, such as machining, forging and others. Although AM techniques have a high capacity of

producing TO geometries, without compromising to much its optimality, these techniques still have

manufacturing restrictions. Feasible AM geometries have associated requirements such as minimum

member size, minimum overhang angle and minimum hole size, for instance. The aim of this work is to

develop a structural optimization algorithm, including in the formulation of the TO problem a

projection-based filter which implicitly applies a manufacturing constraint imposed by the AM

manufacturing process known as FDM (Fused Deposition Modelling), whose technique possess a

critical overhang angle at which the structure does not self-supports. In this case, a projection function

and variable mappings are defined to impose the maximum overhang constraint. Specifically, it aims to

avoid or eliminate the support material utilized in the FDM process and, consequently, reduce the

fabrication costs of the process. Some results are presented to demonstrate the potential of the proposed

TO algorithm.